Uruguay Immigration

I had some difficulty finding any political sex scandals that I could compare to the Randy “Duke” Cunningham 2005 case, instead I have decided to write about the emigration of Honduras and how it has affected the Honduran population.

According to the CIA Factbook the Uruguay’s economy and government has created one of the most advanced Latin American States, where the entire population has access to clean water and 98% of the population over the age of 15 can read (CIA-the World Factbook). Although Uruguay is one of the most “developed” Latin American countries it has not limited the amount of emigration that has beEn characteristic of Uruguay since the 1970s, according to the CIA Uruguay has a negative migration growth “-1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.).” This has created negative effects on the both the population and the economy of Uruguay.

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Enron by The Sea

In three short years San Diego became the center of the political corruption. It started in 2002 when Diann Shipione revealed that the city had shortchanged the city’s pension fund by $1 billion dollars. Shipione’s discovery opened the floodgates that would ultimately lead to the discovery in 2005 that Representative Randy “Duke” Cunningham had been bribed by a defense contractor. Money and power caused San Diego to be known as a politicians heaven, they could get whatever they wanted, and nightmare, if they were discovered. It would seem that the only thing that is missing from this mix is sex. But thanks to our corrupt government officials they knew how what it took to be bribed.

Duke Cunningham


Sunny San Diego Finds Itself Being Viewed as a Kind of Enron-by-the-Sea By JOHN M. BRODER (NY Times)

This article explains how Diann Shipione discovered the shortchanging the San Diego City pension fund by $1 billion. It also explains discusses how City Attorney Mike Aguirre accused the relaxed ethics of San Diego culture as the problem that allowed political corruption to flourish. The article tries to explain how a major city could allow $1 billion to go unnoticed.

2.More bad news? What else is new? By Philip J. LaVelle (San Diego Union-Tribune)

LaVelle’s article discusses the corruption of San Diego beginning with Shipione’s discovery in late 2002. One point that LaVelle makes is that San Diego’s persona as a “‘San Diego has had an image across the country as a clean, All-American, Sun Belt city”‘ (LaVelle, SDUT). Whether or not this is true, from 2002 to 2005 San Diego was known throughout the United States as the center of corruption. What is most intriguing is that some of this corruption centered around extortion for a Las Vegas topless mogul.


Prosecutors May Widen Congressional-Bribe Case

I had to access this article using the library’s VPN the link may not work off campus. This article notes that federal prosecutors in 2005 were widening the bribe case against Duke Cunningham  to include having prostitutes, limousines, and hotels paid for him. These charges would be an addition to the already charges that had been brought against him earlier in 2005 of having a defense contractor buy him a home in San Diego. The use of sex as a commodity that can be traded for political favors explains the conception that women and their bodies are objects.


Dancing across Borders: ‘Exotic Dancers,’ Trafficking, and Canadian Immigration Policy by Audrey Macklin

This article does not directly relate to the politcal scandals of San Diego from 2002 to 2005, but it generally relates to the idea of sex as a commodity that can be bought and sold. Macklin’s article analyzes the Canadian and US governement’s immigration policy of allowing exotic dancers a temporary work visa. The article questions the idea whether or not this equates to government sanctioned sex-trafficking.